Wheat. (Triticum spp) is the term that designates the group of cereals , both cultivated and wild, that belong to the genus Triticum; They are annual plants of the grass family, widely cultivated throughout the world. The word wheat designates both the plant and its edible seeds, just like the names of other cereals.
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- 2 Characteristics
- 3 Cultivation
- 1 Purpose
- 2 Clima
- 3 Production
- 4 Supply
- 5 Classification
- 4 Properties of wheat
- 5 Nutritional value
- 6 Stages of the year
- 1 Spring wheat
- 2 Winter wheat
- 3 Vitreous wheat
- 4 Flour wheats
- 7 Classification according to endosperm hardness
- 8 Fountains
It is thought that it has been cultivated for more than 9,000 years. Some authors think that it arose in the valley of the Nile River . Wheat entered America when Russian immigrants brought it to Kansas in 1873, the variety called Red Turkey , which grows better than any other.
Annual grass plant, of the grass family, with spikes from whose ground grains flour is extracted. Its scientific name is the genus triticum. It is one of the most used cereals in food preparation.
The best cultivation of wheat is achieved in loam and clay laden soil, although the yield is satisfactory in lighter soils. The increase in harvest compensates for the strong nitrogen fertilizer.
Wheat thrives in sub-tropical, moderately temperate, and moderately cold climates. The most appropriate is an annual rainfall of 229-762 mm, more abundant in spring than in summer. The average temperature in summer should be 56°F (13°C) or higher.
Topping the list by volume of world wheat production are China , India , the United States , Russia , France , and Canada , in that order.
Latin American countries appear up to number 14 with Argentina and Mexico at number 25. The volume of China in 1992 was 3.733 million and that of Mexico in the same year was 115 million.
Sowing is done at the end of autumn (winter wheat), or in spring (spring wheat). The times of sowing and harvesting of wheat in the different producing countries, naturally depend on the particular climatic conditions; in some countries wheat is harvested during all months of the year.
In any case, the silage possibilities of most wheat countries are sufficient to store most of the annual crop, so that the British flour manufacturer can buy wheat from any exporting country at almost any time. of the year.
- Classification by harvest:
Wheat has 2 growing seasons: Winter wheat It is planted in autumn and harvested in spring It can be sown in places like northwestern Europe where the ground does not freeze excessively.
The grain germinates in the fall and grows slowly until spring. Frost could adversely affect young plants, but a layer of snow protects them and induces isolation
Among the properties that wheat has are:
- It is a food rich in carbohydrates that helps to obtain a lot of energy .
- Its richness in fiber makes it ideal for treating constipation or diverticula.
- It is ideal for nervous people or in study period due to its contribution in B vitamins .
- Its content in lignans (phytoestrogens) reduces the possibility of breast , uterine or prostate cancer .
- Wheat has antioxidant properties as it is a good source of selenium and vitamin E that protect our cells against free radicals.
- Highly recommended in heart disease due to its richness in vitamin E that helps prevent cholesterol from oxidizing and blocking the arteries.
Among the nutritional properties of wheat, it should be noted that it has the following nutrients:
stages of the year
It is planted in the spring and harvested in early fall. In places such as the Canadian prairies or the Russian steppes where winters are too harsh for winter sowing, wheat is sown in the spring, as soon as possible, so that it can be harvested. harvest the harvest before the autumn frosts begin.
The climatic characteristics of the locations where spring wheat is grown, maximum rainfall in spring and early summer, and maximum temperature in midsummer and late summer, favor the production of fast-maturing grains, with a glassy-textured endosperm and high protein content, suitable for the bakery
The spring wheat production area is progressively expanding northward in the northern hemisphere with the introduction of new varieties grown for their fast maturing characteristics.
Cultivated in a climate with more constant temperature and rainfall, it ripens more slowly producing yields with higher yields and lower protein richness, more suitable for biscuits and pastries than for baking. Classification according to the texture of the endosperm.
This characteristic of the grain is related to the way the grain is fractionated in the milling; the vitreous-floury character can be modified with the culture conditions. The development of the floury quality seems to be related to ripening.
The texture of the endosperm can be vitreous (steel, stony, crystalline, horny). The specific gravity of the vitreous grains is generally greater than that of floury grains: 1.422 vitreous (Bailey, 1916). the vitreous character is hereditary, but it is also affected by environmental conditions. Thus: T. aegilopoides, T. dicoccoides, T. nionococcum and T. durum have vitreous grains.
The glassy character can be induced with nitrogenous manure or fertilizers and is positively correlated with high protein content; the floury character is positively correlated with obtaining high grain yields. The grains are translucent and appear shiny against bright light. The vitreous endosperm lacks these fissures. The grains sometimes acquire a floury appearance as a result of some treatments, for example by wetting and drying them repeatedly or by. heat treatment.
Endosperm texture that is mealy (starchy, chalky). The specific gravity of floury grains is 1.405 (Bailey, 1916). the floury character is hereditary and affected by environmental conditions. The floury character is favored by heavy rains, light sandy soils and very dense planting and depends more on these conditions than on the type of grain cultivated. The opacity of the floury grains is an optical effect due to the presence of minute air-filled vacuoles or fissures between and perhaps within the endosperm cells. The fissures form interior reflective surfaces that impede light transmission and give the endosperm a white appearance. Mealy grains are characteristic of varieties that grow slowly and have a long ripening period.
Classification according to the hardness of the endosperm
The hardness and softness. They are milling characteristics, related to the way the endosperm is fragmented. in durum wheats, the fracture tends to occur along the lines that limit the cells, while the endosperm of soft wheats fragments unexpectedly, randomly.
This phenomenon suggests areas of mechanical strength and weakness in durum wheat, and fairly uniform weakness in soft wheat. One point of view is that hardness. It is related to the degree of adhesion between starch and protein.
Another way of looking at it is that hardness depends on the degree of continuity of the protein matrix (Stenvert and Kingswood, 1977). Hardness affects the ease with which the bran is detached from the endosperm. In durum wheat, the endosperm cells separate more cleanly and tend to remain intact, whereas in soft wheat, the cells tend to fragment, falling off while another part remains attached to the bran.