Vienna . City of Europe , is the capital, largest city, cultural and political center of Austria , as well as one of its nine federal states. The metropolitan area has 2.3 million inhabitants, a population similar to that of the city in 1914 .


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  • 1 Location
  • 2 History
  • 3 Features
    • 1Clima
    • 2Relieve
  • 4 Economic development
  • 5 Historic Center of Vienna. World Heritage
  • 6 Description
  • 7 Justification of registration
  • 8 Fountains



It is located on the banks of the Danube River , in the valley of the Vienna Woods , at the foot of the first foothills of the Alps . It is literally surrounded by the federal state of Lower Austria .


The city has a long history, as it is one of the oldest capitals in Europe, which is why it has an important artistic heritage. During the 19th century it was one of the great musical capitals of the world and at the beginning of the 20th century it was a mecca for philosophy and political debate in the West, as well as one of the main world cultural centers.

Vienna, which was initially a Paleolithic and then a Celtic settlement , was actually born as a Roman camp under the name of Vindobona. Over the centuries it would become the imperial residence and seat of the Habsburg dynasty, one of the most important European royal houses that ruled for more than 700 years, until 1918 , over the vast Austro-Hungarian empire.

The relationship between the Habsburgs and the Ottoman Empire (and later between Austria and Turkey ) was always very intense and turbulent, and numerous conflicts broke out between the two powers, causing one empire to influence another in various ways.

There are scientific works dedicated to the Turkish side of Vienna and there are not a few houses in the capital that show, in some corner of their façade, cannonballs fired by the Ottomans during the sieges of 1529 and 1683 . The definitive victory over the Turks coincided with the appearance in Vienna of the first public coffee in Europe , the work of the Pole Georg Kolschitzky who found several bags of coffee abandoned by the Turks, appropriated them and in 1683 opened a place next to the cathedral where he served excellent coffees.

The Viennese began to mix the drink with milk and thus the cappuccino was born , named for its color, similar to that of the Capuchin monks’ habits (although today the drink in Vienna is called Melange).

At that time the croissant was also born , intentionally prepared in the shape of a crescent to annoy the Turks and which was eaten as a challenge to the enemy. In short, we can say that the famous continental breakfast was born here.

And as for music, it is the capital of the Waltz , the dances of high society debutantes. The greatest musicians in history were born or lived here: Mozart , Beethoven , Ludwig and Schubert , as well as painters, artists and philosophers. And of course, another illustrious from the city, Sigmund Freud , inventor of psychoanalysis , an example of the incredible avant-garde that Vienna was and of the cultural vivacity that still animates the city today and that makes it one of the most active European capitals. .



Vienna has a continental climate, typical of the Danube valley , influenced by its proximity to the Alps. The average annual temperature is 9.5°C, with an important annual oscillation, but little in terms of daily. Rainfall is 644 mm, without dry months, but with a maximum in summer . Winter is very cold , with average temperatures around 0°C and frequent frosts and snowfalls, with records of -25°C. Summers are mild and humid, temperatures, while not hot, can exceed 35°C on some occasions. Autumn and spring are very variable in terms of temperatures, and with relatively abundant rainfall.


The Austrian relief, mostly mountainous (average elevation 1,000 m), integrates the eastern foothills of the Alps and leaves only a small space (to the North and East) for flat lands (edge ​​of the Hungarian plain – the Burgenland-, Danube basin). The great alpine ramifications – the Otztal massif , the Hohe Tauern (3,796 m in the Grossglockner, highest peak in the country), the Carinthian and Styrian Alps – are often interrupted by the presence of numerous fertile valleys (Inn, Mur , Drave).

The Danubian sector, between the Alps (to the South) and the massifs of the Bohemian Forest (to the North), configures the most typical subalpine landscape of the country, with a succession of farms and pastures for cattle.

Economic development

The economy of the department of Vienna is characterized by the still important weight of agricultural activities. 68% of the surface of the department are dedicated to agriculture, although the number of agricultural assets has been divided by two during the last 15 years. Vegetable productions are predominant in the north of the department, while livestock was concentrated in the southeast for sheep (68 % of cattle) and in the west for goats (10.4 % of total cattle).

Industry developed along the Poitiers-Châtellerault axis. This concentration results from the historical industrial vocation of the De Châtellerault employment basin and from the decentralization carried out since the 1960s. Eleven large production establishments alone represent more than 50% of the industrial employment of the department.

Two fields of activities arise: – automobile and aeronautical mechanics – electrical and electronic construction.

The tertiary activities, in particular the commerce, knew a notable development with the implantation of numerous large stores on the outskirts of Poitiers.

Historic center of Vienna. World Heritage

historic center of vienna

Name described in the World Heritage List .

Coordinates N48 13 0 E16 22 60


Type Cultural
Criteria (ii)(iv)(vi)
identification no. 1033
Registration year 2001 (XXV session )

The Historic Center of Vienna is rich in architectural ensembles, including baroque castles and gardens, as well as the Ringstrasse, which at the end of the 19th century filled it with magnificent buildings, monuments and parks.


The urban and architectural qualities of the Historic Center of Vienna bear exceptional testimony to a continuous exchange of values ​​throughout the second millennium AD. Three key periods of European cultural and political development: the Middle Ages , the Baroque , and the Gründerzeit , are exceptionally well illustrated by Vienna ‘s urban and architectural heritage . The property consists of the medieval core (based on the Roman settlement), the main Baroque ensembles with their axes, and the Gründerzeit constructions from the beginning of the modern period. The city of Vienna is located on the banks of the Danube , in the eastern part of Austria. The former Roman military camp, the remains of which are still visible in the medieval urban fabric of present-day Vienna, was situated on a flat area to the west of an ancient branch of the Danube. Beginning in the 12th century , the settlement expanded beyond the Roman defenses, which were demolished. The walls of the medieval city surrounded by a much larger area, were rebuilt during the Ottoman conflicts in the 16th and 17th centuries, always with bastions. This remained the center of Vienna until the demolition of the walls in the second half of the 19th century . This inner city contains a number of historic medieval buildings, including the Schottenkloster, the monasteryoldest in Austria, the churches of Maria am Gestade (one of the main Gothic structures), Michaelerkirche, Minoritenkirche and Minoritenkloster, from the 13th century . The Cathedral of Saint Stephen dates between the 14th and 15th centuries. The period also saw the construction of civic ensembles, as an initial part of the Hofburg. Whereas the monastic complexes are generally built of stone, becoming part of the defenses of the medieval city, the residential neighborhoods were made of wood and suffered frequent fires. In 1683 , Vienna rapidly developed as the capital of the Habsburg Empire , becoming an impressive baroque city.

The baroque characterIt was expressed above all in the great designs of palaces built in the times of Emperor Charles VI ( 1711-1740 ) and Maria Theresa (1740-1780 ) , such as the Belvedere Palace and its garden. An increasing number of new palaces were built by noble families. Many existing medieval buildings, churches and convents were altered and given Baroque features, with additions being made to the representative administrative buildings. Several historical buildings are associated with the important Viennese residences of personalities such as Mozart , Beethoven , Schubertand others, when the city played an essential role as a leading European music center , from the great age of Viennese Classicism through the early part of the 20th century .

A new stage in the history of Vienna took place when the 34 suburbs were incorporated into the city, and the emperor ordered the demolition of the inner city fortifications. This opportunity was seized to create one of the most significant 19th century ensembles in the history of urban planning, greatly influencing the rest of Europe in this crucial period of social and economic development. in 1874the Hofburg complex was expanded by the Neue Hofburg, an “imperial forum”, and joined with large museum complexes into a single ensemble. The Burgtheater, parliament, town hall and university form another ensemble linked to these. the opera house was added , as well as a large number of public and private buildings along the Ringstrasse, the street surrounding the center of the city, in line with the demolished walls.The late 19th and early 19th centuries from the 20th century testify to further creative contributions of Viennese designers, artists and architects in the Jugendstil, Secession and early 20th century Modern Movement in architecture .

Justification of the registration

  • Criterion (ii): The urban and architectural qualities of the Historic Center of Vienna bear exceptional testimony for a continuous exchange of values ​​throughout the second millennium.
  • Criterion (iv): Three key periods of European cultural and political development: the Middle Ages, the Baroque period, and the Gründerzeit, are exceptionally well illustrated by the urban and architectural heritage of the historic center of Vienna.
  • Criterion (vi): Since the 16th century, Vienna has been universally recognized as the musical capital of Europe.




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