children with special needsor some call itspecial childMeans a child who needs special care due to physical, mental, intellectual, sensory, emotional and social impairments or limitations, including being influenced by environmental factors. which causes the child to have limitations or obstacles in life or participation in various social activities to fulfill normal roles depending on the type and severity of the impairment or limitation
– Type of Disability –
People with special needs can be classified into several categories. The ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health) under WHO has classified six categories of disabilities:
- visual impairment
- Disability of hearing or meaning
- Movement or physical disability
- Mental or behavioral disability or autism
- Intellectual disability
- Learning Disabilities
In 2009 , the Ministry of Social Development and Human Security classified six types of disabilities under the ICF, and in 2012 classified autistic disability as Category 7.
– Families with children with special needs –
When a child in a family member becomes a child with special needs Other members were also affected. Parents are the ones most affected because they have to bear the burden of taking care of their children in every aspect, which greatly affects the mental health of the parents. Therefore, it is the duty of all family members to help each other solve the problems that arise. and manage things as well and efficiently as possible In order for the family to be able to overcome the crisis that arises, the diagnosis process is the first line of family crisis that parents and family members must face when their child develops or exhibits abnormal behavior from other children.
The process of being diagnosed is one of the most difficult steps for parents of children with special needs. Not all families require a diagnosis. Because the diagnosis creates a feeling of shame and stigma for family members. When there is a child with special needs in the family Members automatically tend to self-assess negatively, causing negative emotions to rise. and the behavior of withdrawing oneself from society because of wanting to conceal feelings of stigma from others in society Family members’ feelings of self-humiliation contribute to the increased burden of caring for the child and the failure of family functioning. Ultimately affecting the quality of life of all family members. Asians tend to feel this way more than Europeans and Americans. Because traditional, social, cultural and religious values are more ingrained.
– The needs of families with children with special needs –
Parents with children with special needs need a variety of support. It depends on the type and severity of your child’s disability. which parents need to develop specific knowledge and skills in caring Including needing support in various ways to help relieve stress able to face and manage problems effectively conducive to meeting the needs of children appropriately
- Information requirements
Parents of special needs children report that they receive broad information about their child’s disease. But sometimes they may not be given the specific information they think they need to know, such as developmental and disease details. receiving services such as early developmental promotion, occupational therapy, physical therapy and speech therapy Including they need advice. Various tools and ways to deal with children in the right way to help them understand their children and be more helpful in raising children.
- Psychological needs
Parents of children with special needs face stressful situations. both individual consultation group consultation Or other forms of help will help parents relieve their worries. Because they reveal their stories and know that they are being listened to attentively. In addition, group counseling facilitates the exchange of information and sharing the same type of experience. Parents will know that they are not alone in their problems. network building as well as receive useful advice which can recharge physically and mentally and can continue to take care of the child effectively
- Social needs
parents, especially mothers Must be with the child most of the time. This leaves them with less time for themselves, other family members, relatives and friends, and less activities that they used to enjoy and enjoy. Because I have to devote time and energy to raising children. So parents need a break. need a child care center and house helpers So that they can have time to rest and regain their energy to continue taking care of their children.
- Financial need
Parents of special needs children have a high cost of raising their children. they need subsidies To improve the quality of life of family members and to be able to take care of children with special needs appropriately and efficiently.
- Demand for medical services
Many parents of special needs children report that they are less likely to receive help from healthcare professionals. They want to support specialized child care. And more help from medical personnel in terms of information, services and manners, which receiving support in various fields from medical personnel will allow children to develop well according to their potential.
- Other requirements
such as relationships, education and management with the future of children