If all of you ever answered the question When you want to drink a glass of water What do you think about the picture of half a glass of water in front of you ? “There is only half a glass of water. This seemingly simple question categorizes people’s thoughts, attitudes, and character into two categories: optimists and pessimists.
optimismIt is one of the concepts associated with positive psychology and is a component of psychological capital and is the origin of the alphabet.Oin the wordHEROIf everyone has followed the story of this series of articles from the beginning [ (1) Resilience, (2) Hope], you should understand the meaning and origin very well. Optimism has been in the spotlight for decades. In the early stages it was used to treat symptoms of mental illness such as anxiety. Fear or neurotic symptoms
If you are the one who is interested in the concept of positive psychology that focuses on and encourages people to use their own power to drive. Pushing and motivating the power to solve problems in order to overcome the obstacles that every life has to deal with inevitable events. One important theory that explains such abilities and skills in people is the Broaden and Build theory of psychologists famous for their positivity, Barbara L. Fredrikson, American Professor of Psychology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, who encouraged people to appreciate and the importance of positive emotions which can help us open our minds. Can accept and see other perspectives, while negative emotions and thoughts tend to lead to escapism, blocking acceptance of different perspectives.
When faced with a traumatic event such as the COVID-19 pandemic, we all experience the aftermath of feelings that affect us differently, such as fear, anxiety. and depression Fear is a negative emotion that is accompanied by an alertness to the dangers that surround you. Psychologically, it was found that When we have to face the challenges of that tragic moment. positive qualities that encourage self-esteem, such as self-esteem trust of others self control And the predictions of everything around them can be destroyed. This can lead to negative attitudes towards other people and the environment, leading to undesirable consequences such as fear and anxiety. (Janoff-Bulman, 2010) People who have experienced extreme fear People tend to believe and think that bad things will happen again only if they feel the clues of the nightmare begin to approach (Farnsworth & Sewell, 2011).Optimism is therefore a factor that plays an important role in alleviating negative situations or emotions that many people are worried and facing.
optimism(Optimism) means seeing the causes or attributes of events in a positive way and believing that they are permanent. Negative events can be interpreted as being caused by external factors and occurring only temporarily depending on the situation (Seligman, 2011). will help people to apply it in their lives in fostering positive expectations Reduced focus on one’s own negative thoughts in the interpretation of events surrounding and in the workplace (Carver & Scheier, 2002), while Seligman (2011) defines optimism as a cognitive process concerning one’s positive expectations and identifying the causes of adverse events that occur as a result of external factors. exist only temporarily and occurs only for that event As for identifying the causes of good events, they are caused by internal factors and can occur regularly and may extend to other situations.
One concept used to explain the origin and significance of optimism or pessimism is:expectation and value theory(Expectancy Value Theory) (Vroom, 1964), which explains that Individuals will show different behaviors for the values or goals they desire. Which the effort will be more or less depending on whether the value of that thing is enough to reach or not. In addition to the value (Value), there is also an important component that is expected (Expectancies), which means that people have Confidence or hesitation that the goal can be reached or not. If the confidence is not enough The person tends to give up their intentions and stop acting in the pursuit of achieving their goals. From a study in patients with chronic pain. With Fibromyaglia, optimists tend to be less likely to give up on their goals. no matter how severe the pain is (Affleck et al., 2001) from related theory and research. It can therefore be concluded that both expectations and values are important in explaining the meaning and origin of optimism.
Another interesting theory that explains optimism or pessimism isIdentification Theory(Attribution theory) using a form of explanation (Explanatory style) explaining the causes of events. That is a reflection of character. the person’s thought process As a result of learning from childhood until adulthood. The perspective of a person who expects events or situations that will happen in the future arises from the interpretation of past events in the past. Describes good events that occur as a result of individual actions or characteristics. There is a belief that more good things will happen in the future and also in other areas of life if something bad happens. Optimists tend to think that the wrong event or the negative story. Caused by external factors, it’s not their fault and also sees the bad event as a coincidence. It has nothing to do with any other part of life or future events. For example, if an optimistic person gets a promotion He tends to believe that it’s because he’s doing a good job and that he deserves that benefit. Have the opportunity to grow in the next job If this group of people weren’t promoted this time They will think that it might be because the situation is not so good, but things will get better in the future.
Pessimists think otherwise. They believe that bad events are caused by their own mistakes or character. This group has the view that one mistake will lead to more mistakes. And mistakes in life are inevitable. If a good event happensA pessimist thinks that positive events or good events are just coincidences. caused by things beyond your control And it probably won’t happen again.For example, a pessimist sees a promotion at work as (It’s a good event) It’s a coincidence that may not happen again in the future. and also worried that New positions received may be subject to even greater scrutiny. If you miss the promotion (It’s a bad event) It’s because you don’t have enough skills. Therefore, these people tend to predict that they will miss another good opportunity in the future. In short, pessimists tend to see everything around them as bad. A research report found that Pessimistic cancer patient There is often an increased mortality rate. This was even after controlling for other factors associated with co-morbid depression (Schulz et al., 1996).
There are also many studies that have found thatOptimism is associated with problem-oriented stress coping style.(Active coping) Research has shown that people who are optimistic tend to have lower negative mood or depressive symptoms (Anderson, 1996), which is consistent with the findings of Solberg Nes and Segestrom (2006) that Optimism is negatively associated with avoidance coping, research has found. An optimistic law student They tend to use avoidance coping less often than other students (Segestrom et al., 1998). When faced with stressful situations or illnesses, optimism results in reduced stress (Steptoe, 2008).
The way people think and expect good things and understand the events that arise from the assessment of various factors together with the use of coping strategies that are ready to adjust according to the situation of the problem that is being faced With a good understanding that in human life there will always be good and bad stories. Therefore optimism Ready to cope and adapt to every situation, therefore, is the right way and can be adapted to our current lives. There are several strategies for coping and adapting to extreme situations. Be it positive reframing, humor, or acceptance (Wrosch & Scheier, 2003).
The mindset of optimistic people is as follows: they are protective of themselves from negative events and tend to think that good things will happen to them more than others. It tends to happen to others than themselves. Schwarzer (1994) has defined the set of ideas in this way as Defensive optimism, which thinking in this form. will be like an emotional shield Perceiving or accepting things that happen in a negative way as well It helps lift the feelings of the brokenhearted out of the pressing reality of certain situations in life.
In the past, the relationship between optimism and Pessimism and distress among people suffering in different cases, such as students competing for university entrance examinations. employees in business circles and a survivor of missiles and attacks. Caregivers of cancer patients and caregivers of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. There are also studies that examine the experience of stress among people involved in medical procedures such as pediatric education, childbirth, abortion, and coronary artery bypass surgery An attempt at IVF Bone Marrow and Heart Transplantation hearing the results of a cancer diagnosis pain from arthritis and progress in the fight against immunodeficiency (Scheier & Carver, 1992).
For example, in a study of women undergoing breast cancer treatment, pessimists were more likely to distance themselves from social activities than optimists (Carver et al. al., 2003). This is an important factor. The presence of social networks has a positive effect on one’s well-being (Taylor, 2007). There is evidence that optimism is positively related to the size of an individual’s social network. In short, the more optimistic the world, the better. The wider the social network a person has (Segerstrom, 2007).
Optimism is thus considered a positive resource that affects interpersonal relationships. social network and relationships with close friendsThe reason why optimism can create more positive relationships in society than pessimism is. This is because most people generally like to associate with people who are optimistic. People with a positive view of the future or expectations are often accepted. and tend to reject relationships with people who preoccupy themselves with negative life events (Carver et al., 1994; Helweg-Larsen et al., 2002).
Although optimism seems to be a trait that is inherent in the individual (trait), it is different from the state (state) that can be stimulated or developed through processes such as training. training or activities to stimulate desirable conditions. However, Folkman and Moskowitz (2000) suggest that successful problem-solving in the past life in the past It can help build optimism beliefs, so coping skills training and positive feedback will help build and develop character traits. of optimism as well If we rethink the idea that in every competition that aims to be the reward of that success There was never a “lose” , only a “win” and “learned a lesson”.which those lessons, no matter how much serious it is If we still have breath and live We can definitely become stronger. According to the immortal text of the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzscher who once wrote: “ What doesn’t kill us makes us stronger.”
then optimism How is it related to believing in one’s own abilities (Efficacy), which will be the last HERO attribute? Invite everyone to follow the 4 endings of academic articles for the final chapter in the next opportunity.