munich . It is the capital and largest city of the Land of Bavaria . It is the third city in Germany by number of inhabitants after Berlin and Hamburg , it is made up of 25 neighborhoods at an altitude of 519 m above sea level . According to a 2009 study , it has the best quality of life in Germany . His name is pronounced in Spanish: [‘mu.nik] or [‘mu.nitʃ]; in German , München or Minga in Bavarian dialect. The demonym is Munich.


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  • 1 Exonym
  • 2 History
  • 3 Geography
    • 1Clima
    • 2 Districts of Munich
  • 4 Architecture and urbanism
  • 5 Government and politics
  • 6 Economy
  • 7Desarrollo social
    • 1Transportes
    • 2 Education
    • 3 Culture
    • 4 Gastronomy
    • 5Deportes
  • 8 Events
  • 9 symbols
  • 10 sister cities
  • 11Fuentes


The exonym in Spanish of the city, which has the particularity of having a final ‘ch’, something foreign to the Spanish phonological system, comes from the exonyms in French and English . Therefore, the pronunciation of the exonym is, etymologically, [‘munik], through the pronunciation of the exonym in English, or [‘munitʃ], following the usual pronunciation rules of Spanish.

The demonym is muniqués (and its plural muniqueses). The Diccionario Panhispánico de Dudas advises against pronunciation with a dipthong [ˈmiunik], typical of English.


Founded in 1158 as a trading center and mint by Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony . In 1255 the powerful Wittelsbach family, whose members ruled as dukes of Bavaria, made the town their residence.

In 1327 a fire destroyed the city, which was rebuilt by Holy Roman Emperor Louis IV. In 1632 and during the Thirty Years’ War, Gustav II Adolf King of Sweden took the city. At the beginning of the 19th century , the city, like the rest of Bavaria , became part of the Confederation of the Rhine promoted by Napoleon I.

With the collapse of the Napoleonic Empire, Bavaria joined the German Confederation. During the reigns of Maximilian I , Louis I , Maximilian II , Louis II , and the regency of Prince Luitpold, architecture and the arts in the city flourished like never before. After the German victory in the Franco-Prussian War , led by Otto von Bismarck, Bavaria and with it Munich became part of the German Empire. At the end of the First World War, Munich became the focus of the main movements that rejected the peace conditions that the Treaty of Versailles imposed on Germany. In this context, the “Munich Putsch” took place in 1923 , an uprising led byAdolf Hitler.

In 1938 , representatives of France , the United Kingdom , and Germany signed the Munich Agreement ceding the Sudetenland to Germany . Over the course of World War II , the city was badly damaged; However, in the decades after the conflict it was carefully rebuilt.

After the war ended, Bavaria was integrated into the Federal Republic of Germany . In this city, a meeting of Spaniards critical of the Franco regime was held in 1962 , derogatorily called the Munich Conspiracy. The so-called Munich massacre in 1972 , took place during the 20th edition of the Summer Olympic Games , where a command of Palestinian terrorists called Black September took eleven members of the Israeli Olympic team hostage . The tragedy was seen around the world on television .


The city is crossed by the Isar river in southern Germany. Its highest point is the Warnberg, located in the 19th district (Thalkirchen – Obersendling – Forstenried – Fürstenried – Solln), with a height of 519 m. The lowest elevation, 492 m, is to the north , in the Feldmoching district.

The Isar River crosses the city for about 13.7 km, within the river there are several islands, such as Museumsinsel Island (Museum Island), so called because the Deutsches Museum (Museum of the History of Science and the German Technique), or the nearby Praterinsel.

Around the city there are numerous lakes , of which we can highlight: the Ammersee, the Wörthsee and the Starnberger See. The river Würm originates in the latter , which together with the Hachinger Bach and the various channels of the river Isar bathe the city.


The climate is continental, influenced by the presence of the Alps . During the summer , the temperature reaches its peak in the month of July with an average of 24ºC. Summer is represented from May to September . Winter is strong with the presence of snowfall; It usually lasts from December to March, being more intense in January, with an average temperature of -2ºC. The rains are strong, but unpredictable, as well as sometimes a hot and sudden environment can occur due to the windFöhn regardless of the time of year in question.

districts of munich

  • Altstadt-Lehel
  • Ludwigsvorstadt-Isarvorstadt
  • Maxvorstadt
  • Schwabing-West
  • Au Haidhausen
  • emissary
  • Sendling-Westpark
  • Schwanthalerhöhe
  • Neuhausen-Nymphenburg
  • Moosach
  • Milbertshofen-Am Hart
  • Schwabing-Freimann
  • Bogenhausen
  • Berg am Laim
  • Trudering-Riem
  • Ramersdorf-Perlach
  • Obergiesing
  • Untergiesing-Harlaching
  • Fürstenried-Solln
  • quarreling
  • Pasing-Obermenzing
  • Aubing
  • Allach-Untermenzing
  • Feldmoching-Hasenbergl
  • Laim

Architecture and urbanism

The architect and urban planner Theodor Fischer envisioned the development of Munich towards the end of the 19th century . His work continues to mark the urban landscape of the city. The central area of ​​Munich can be crossed from the Central Railway Station (Hauptbahnhof) in an easterly direction, passing through Karlsplatz and Karlstor (Charles Gate) which between 1319 and 1791 served as the gateway to the walled city. Then continue through the pedestrian and commercial area to the Plaza de María (Marienplatz) which since the founding of the city has been the geographical and social center. It is presided over by the New Town Hall (Rathaus) in neo-Gothic style with its famous carillon.

A few steps away is the Cathedral of Our Lady (Frauenkirche) , one of the icons of the city, with its two 99-meter-high towers that are visible from miles around, thanks to a law that prevents the construction of larger buildings. taller than the cathedral in the urban area and part of the outskirts. A couple of blocks south is the food market (Viktualienmarkt) which was originally a traditional farmer’s market, and today is a very popular market among lovers of good food.

Other religious centers with outstanding architecture are the Church of San Miguel, and the Peterskirche, which is the oldest church in the city and has a viewpoint. There is also the Theatinerkirche St. Kajetan, a church with gold-colored towers and a greenish dome. The city has several parks among which the English Garden (Englischer Garten) stands out, it is the central park of the city crossed by the Eisbach stream. It is one of the largest parks in a city in the world. Also important are the Royal Palace of Munich (Residenz) in the nerve center of the city, as well as the Nymphenburg Palace , former summer residence of the kings of Bavaria.

government and politics

Munich is the seat of the Bavarian parliament and government due to its status as the capital of the free state. In addition, it is also the capital of the Oberbayern region and its administrative district (Landkreis München). Other state bodies with federal and international coverage also have their headquarters in the city, such as the European Patent Office or the Federal Finance Court (Bundesfinanzhof). Traditionally, center-left parties have dominated local politics, while in Bavaria the center-right tends to rule. since 1993Christian Ude (SPD) holds the mayoralty of the city. The deputy mayor Christine Strobl (SPD) is doing the job, and the third deputy mayor is Hep Monatzeder (Die Grünen, The Greens). Currently the city is governed by an agreement between socialists and greens. Munich is divided into 25 districts.


Munich is a modern economic center. BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke) and Siemens AG have their headquarters here. The local government encourages the development of high-tech industry and research projects in the fields of biology, information technology, aerospace and automotive. The city and its surroundings constitute one of the regions with the highest concentration of wealth in the world. One of the important elements of the local and regional economy is made up of the Biergärten, where local and regional inhabitants come and live together, especially during spring and summer. In recent years, the city’s debt has grown to place it above the rest of the German cities since 2005. The debt per inhabitant then stood at 2,651 Eur/inhab. followed by Cologne (2,571 Eur) and by that of Frankfurt am Main (2,3138 Eur). In return, the city has a great wealth of assets in the form of shares in buildings and homes and in municipal services. Especially after the Second World War, several companies that were based in Berlin or the German Democratic Republic moved to Munich.

Social development


Like most German cities, Munich has an efficient public transport system. The Franz Josef Strauss airport in Munich is the second in the country, surpassed only by the one in Frankfurt am Main. To go from the airport to the city center use the Fast Train (lines S1 or S8). They follow different routes to get to the airport, so it is advisable to consult a transport map to choose the most favorable line. In addition, the underground (U-Bahn), the tram(Tram) and the bus have extensive and punctual lines that make public transport in Munich a delight. For this reason, many people in Munich do without the car and get around by these means of transport or by bicycle (which takes precedence over pedestrians and cars). The prices are relatively high, so it is advisable to find out about the subscriptions for one day, for three or for seven, for groups or the Streifenkarte. From Plaza de María you can take most of the suburban trains (S-Bahn) that take you through Munich and its surroundings and to the airport, but also two metro lines .


Munich is a prominent university city where two important universities are based: the LMU (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München) and the TUM (Technische Universität München). Important research centers such as the Max-Planck Institute and the Fraunhofer Society, among others, have chosen this city as their headquarters.


“Between art and beer, Munich is like a town camped on hills”, wrote Heinrich Heine more than 150 years ago – a quote that is still relevant today. Between the beer festival and the opera, the Hofbräuhaus and the Art Gallery, the BMW and the FC Bayern München, Munich combines Bavarian tradition and frenetic activity. Munich is a city rooted in southern Germany and is internationally known for its collections of ancient and classical art. Therefore, the Alte Pinakothek, Neue Pinakothek, the Pinakothek der Moderne, and the Lenbachhaus are some of the most famous museums in the world.

The Deutsches Museum dedicated to science and technology, with more than a million visitors per year, is one of the most visited museums in Europe. The Munich Glyptothek (Glyptothek) contains sculptures, mosaics and reliefs from the Archaic period (650 BC) to Roman times (500 BC). Other museums, but they are also part of the most famous museums in Germany , such as the Völkerkundemuseum (Ethnological Museum), the Paläontologisches Museum (presenting the State’s prehistoric collection) and the Münchner Stadtmuseum (City Museum). There are also within the city the classical-style National Theater of Munich , which houses the Bavarian State Opera, and the Cuvilliés Theater, which is the most important enclosure in rococo architectural style in Germany .. The largest film production companies in Germany are in Munich.


Cooked white sausages (Weißwurst) that originate in Munich in 1857 are typical . They are made from finely minced beef, lard and spices. It has a light gray color due to not being salted. They are very similar to Wollwurst and Stockwurst. They are traditionally cooked at dawn and eaten in the morning as a snack in the markets and in taverns with sweet mustard, Brezn and wheat beer. Leberkäs, a kind of hot sausage, is another of the specialties of this city, usually accompanied by a roll (Leberkässemmel).

Its fundamental characteristic is its box shape that differentiates it from most cooked sausages. Beer is the most typical drink in Munich gastronomy. The most drunk is Helles, a low-fermentation beer, but Weißbier is also well-known, with high fermentation in which 50% of the cereal must be wheat. Duke Guillermo IV of Bavaria promoted the new law that fixed the composition of the beer. This “law of purity” (Reinheitsgebot) is still followed to produce beer. The traditional brands of the city are: Löwenbräu, Paulaner, Spatenbräu, Augustiner, Hofbräu and Hacker-Pschorr.


It is a city with a first-class sports development, it has a high-level infrastructure where the Munich Olympic Park and the Allianz Arena Stadium built as part of the preparations for the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany stand out . It was designed by the architects Herzog & de Meuron.

The main sports and activities include:

  • Football

The first soccer team in the city was Los Leones, which since 1963 played in the national league and in 1965 Bayern Munich , the most successful soccer club in Germany , began to play , it is the one that has won the Bundesliga the most times and one of the most important in the world .

  • Ice Hockey

Represented by the club EHC München founded in 1998 , it has its home in the Munich Olympic Ice Pavilion . The first team plays in the second national division of the German Ice Hockey League.

  • Tennis

BMW Open by FWU Retakaful – Bavarian International Tennis Competitions. Tennis tournament that is part of the ATP World Tour with elite participants.

  • Golf

BMW International Open playing at the München Eichenried Golf Club. It is a golf tournament with international status.

  • horse riding

Munich Indoors. It is an international equestrian tournament that takes place in the Olympic Park. First class program that includes high dressage and jumping.

  • Climbing

It has a climbing center , which is one of the largest facilities in Europe , both indoors and outdoors.


These are some of the most outstanding cultural activities that regularly take place in the city during the year:

  • Carnival: Dance of the market women ( Tanz der Marktfrauen) and fun activities at the Viktualienmarkt.
  • February / March : Festival of strong beer (Starkbierfest), especially on the Nockherberg, home of the Paulaner brewery.
  • April : Spring festival (Frühlingsfest) on the Theresienwiese.
  • April / May : Traditional market on the Mariahilfsplatz, called Auer Dult.
  • May: Cultural and family festival on May 1 at the Marienplatz, and the Munich Biennale, an international musical theater show that has been held every two years since 1988 .
  • May/ June : StustaCulum, the largest university festival in Germany in Studentenstadt, the largest student residence in the country.
  • May/ August : Bladenight, night out on skates .
  • June: Streetlivefestival on Leopoldstraße and Comic Book Festival.
  • June/July: Tollwood in the Olympiapark.
  • Julio
    • Christopher Street Day, gay pride day .
    • Japanese party. It takes place on the third Sunday in the booth behind the House of Art (Haus der Kunst).
    • Auer Dult.
    • Bell’Arte music festival in the courtyard of the Residenz.
  • August
    • Summer party in the Olympic Park.
    • Theatron MusikSommer – a month of daily concerts in the Olympic Park. It’s free and two groups play a day.
    • Summer party at the Viktualienmarkt.
    • Lilalu, children’s and circus festival in the Olympic Park.
  • September : Streetlivefestival in Leopoldstraße.
  • September/ October
    • Oktoberfest, beer festival on the Theresienwiese (die Wies’n). It attracts visitors from all over the world.
    • Auer Dult.
  • November December
    • Spielart, Munich theater festival.
    • Tollwood in the Theresienwiese.
  • December : Christmas Market (Christkindlmärkte). In addition, special attention must be paid to the Opera Festival (Opernfestspiele) and the Film Festival (Filmfest).


The city’s coat of arms shows in silver a Benedictine monk in a black habit with a golden outline and red shoes. In his left hand he holds an oath book and raises his right to do so. The current official shield was made in 1957and it is called a small shield. There is also what, on the contrary, is called the large shield, used only on special occasions. On it appears, on a silver background, a red portal with open doors and guarded by two towers with a black and gold striped table. Above the portal is a crowned golden lion. At the door you can see the monk who also appears on the small shield. The evolution over time of the unofficial representations of the monk that appear on the shield, by different artists, gave rise to the figure of the Munich boy (Münchener Kindl). The central character of the shield becomes the child, from which various graphic representations are derived. The colors of the city are black and gold and correspond to the colors of the Holy Roman Empire.

sister cities

Munich twinning: Edinburgh, Scotland (since 1954 ); Bordeaux, France (since 1964 ); Verona, Italy, (since 1960 ); Sapporo, Japan (since 1972 ); Cincinnati, United States, Kiev, Ukraine (since 1989 ); and Harare, Zimbabwe (since 1996 ); Monterrey, Mexico (since 16.03 . 2010 )





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